13 Jan : Public Radio went on-air

109 years back today radio was heard publicly for the first time.

It was an experimental transmission of a live Metropolitan Opera House performance of several famous opera singers Ricardo Martin, Amy Destin, Enrico Caruso in New York City.

Where it was heard ?
The birth of public radio was heard at the De Forest Radio Laboratory, on board ships in New York Harbor around 20 km away and in large hotels on Times Square and at New York city locations where members of the press were stationed at receiving sets.

Why it is not considered successful ?
The experiment was considered mostly unsuccessful because the microphones were of poor quality and couldn’t pick up most of the singing done on stage. Only off-stage singers singing directly into a microphone could be heard clearly.
But the importance of this broadcast can be seen as a household item everywhere in the world.

13 jan-public radio.jpegThe mind behind this experiment 

This man is referred to as ‘Father of Radio’. He is An American inventor Lee De Forest. He is credited for many experiments in the development of Sound on film recording. Because of his continuous trials, on January 13, 1910, the first public radio broadcast could happen.

Early experiments in radio broadcast, even before 1910.
– The very first transmission of music by radio is credited to one Dr. Nussbaumer of the University of Graz in 1904, however it was not to the general public. He sang an Austrian folk song into an experimental transmitter which was received in the next room at the university where he worked. He does not show in any standard reference works of science.
– Lee De Forest did a program of opera phonograph records from the Eiffel Tower in Paris in 1908. This was just an experimental stunt to other nearby hobbyists and not considered a public broadcast. The general public had no access to receivers at the time.
– When testing the radiotelephone for the Navy, Lee de Forest played patriotic phonograph music as the ships entered the harbour.

1910 में आज पहली बार रेडियो को एक साथ कई जगह पर सुना गया था। ये एक प्रयोग था जिसमें न्यू यॉर्क के मेट्रोपोलिटन ओपेरा हाउस की परफॉर्मेंस को शहर के कई इलाकों में एक साथ सुनने की व्यवस्था की गई थी। इस प्रयोग को करने वाले थे रेडियो के जनक माने जाने वाले ली डे फॉरेस्ट। उन्होंने इससे पहले भी रेडियो को लेकर कई प्रयोग किए थे लेकिन सार्वजनिक तौर पर रेडियो को सुनने वाला ये पहला प्रयोग था। इसे ली डे फॉरेस्ट की प्रयोगशाला में सुना जा सकता था। इसके अलावा करीब 20 किलोमीटर दूर समंदर के बीच में मौजूद जहाज पर भी इस रेडियो प्रोग्राम को सुनने की व्यवस्था की गई थी। मीडिया के सुनने के लिए खास इंतज़ाम किए गए थे। तमाम कोशिशों के बावजूद इसे सफल नहीं कहा जा सकता था क्योंकि माइक की कमी की वजह से तमाम जगहों पर ये ठीक से सुना नहीं जा सका। कुछ भी हो, इस एक प्रयोग ने देखते ही देखते आम जनजीवन में रेडियो की जगह बना दी। इसके बाद धीरे-धीरे और तमाम कोशिशों की बदौलत रेडियो आज मनोरंजन का सस्ता, सुंदर और टिकाऊ साधन है।